PyCasbin: An authorization library that supports access control models like ACL, RBAC, ABAC in Python

2021.11.30 11:52 EquivalentAd4 PyCasbin: An authorization library that supports access control models like ACL, RBAC, ABAC in Python

PyCasbin ![GitHub Action]( ![Coverage Status]( ![Version]( ![PyPI - Wheel]( ![Pyversions]( ![Download]( ![Gitter](
Source code:
News: Async version PyCasbin can be found at:
News: still worry about how to write the correct Casbin policy? Casbin online editor is coming to help! Try it at:
Casbin is a powerful and efficient open-source access control library for Python projects. It provides support for enforcing authorization based on various access control models.
All the languages supported by Casbin:

![golang]( ![java]( ![nodejs]( ![php](
Casbin jCasbin node-Casbin PHP-Casbin
production-ready production-ready production-ready production-ready
![python]( ![dotnet]( ![c++]( ![rust](
PyCasbin Casbin.NET Casbin-CPP Casbin-RS
production-ready production-ready beta-test production-ready
Table of contents Supported models
  1. ACL (Access Control List)
  2. ACL with superuser
  3. ACL without users: especially useful for systems that don't have authentication or user log-ins.
  4. ACL without resources: some scenarios may target for a type of resources instead of an individual resource by using permissions like write-article, read-log. It doesn't control the access to a specific article or log.
  5. RBAC (Role-Based Access Control)
  6. RBAC with resource roles: both users and resources can have roles (or groups) at the same time.
  7. RBAC with domains/tenants: users can have different role sets for different domains/tenants.
  8. ABAC (Attribute-Based Access Control): syntax sugar like resource.Owner can be used to get the attribute for a resource.
  9. RESTful: supports paths like /res/*, /res/:id and HTTP methods like GET, POST, PUT, DELETE.
  10. Deny-override: both allow and deny authorizations are supported, deny overrides the allow.
  11. Priority: the policy rules can be prioritized like firewall rules.
How it works? In Casbin, an access control model is abstracted into a CONF file based on the PERM metamodel (Policy, Effect, Request, Matchers). So switching or upgrading the authorization mechanism for a project is just as simple as modifying a configuration. You can customize your own access control model by combining the available models. For example, you can get RBAC roles and ABAC attributes together inside one model and share one set of policy rules.
The most basic and simplest model in Casbin is ACL. ACL's model CONF is:
Request definition [request_definition] r = sub, obj, act
Policy definition [policy_definition] p = sub, obj, act
Policy effect [policy_effect] e = some(where (p.eft == allow))
Matchers [matchers] m = r.sub == p.sub && r.obj == p.obj && r.act == p.act
An example policy for ACL model is like:
p, alice, data1, read p, bob, data2, write
It means:
We also support multi-line mode by appending '\' in the end:
Matchers [matchers] m = r.sub == p.sub && r.obj == p.obj \ && r.act == p.act ```
Further more, if you are using ABAC, you can try operator in like following in Casbin golang edition (jCasbin and Node-Casbin are not supported yet):
Matchers [matchers] m = r.obj == p.obj && r.act == p.act || r.obj in ('data2', 'data3') ```
But you SHOULD make sure that the length of the array is MORE than 1, otherwise there will cause it to panic.
For more operators, you may take a look at govaluate
Features What Casbin does:
  1. enforce the policy in the classic {subject, object, action} form or a customized form as you defined, both allow and deny authorizations are supported.
  2. handle the storage of the access control model and its policy.
  3. manage the role-user mappings and role-role mappings (aka role hierarchy in RBAC).
  4. support built-in superuser like root or administrator. A superuser can do anything without explict permissions.
  5. multiple built-in operators to support the rule matching. For example, keyMatch can map a resource key /foo/bar to the pattern /foo*.
What Casbin does NOT do:
  1. authentication (aka verify username and password when a user logs in)
  2. manage the list of users or roles. I believe it's more convenient for the project itself to manage these entities. Users usually have their passwords, and Casbin is not designed as a password container. However, Casbin stores the user-role mapping for the RBAC scenario.
Installation pip install casbin
Online editor You can also use the online editor ( to write your Casbin model and policy in your web browser. It provides functionality such as syntax highlighting and code completion, just like an IDE for a programming language.
Get started
  1. New a Casbin enforcer with a model file and a policy file:
python import casbin e = casbin.Enforcer("path/to/model.conf", "path/to/policy.csv")
Note: you can also initialize an enforcer with policy in DB instead of file, see Persistence section for details.
  1. Add an enforcement hook into your code right before the access happens:
```python sub = "alice" # the user that wants to access a resource. obj = "data1" # the resource that is going to be accessed. act = "read" # the operation that the user performs on the resource.
if e.enforce(sub, obj, act): # permit alice to read data1 pass else: # deny the request, show an error pass ```
  1. Besides the static policy file, Casbin also provides API for permission management at run-time. For example, You can get all the roles assigned to a user as below:
python roles = e.get_roles_for_user("alice")
See Policy management APIs for more usage.
  1. Please refer to the tests files for more usage.
Policy management Casbin provides two sets of APIs to manage permissions:
We also provide a web-based UI for model management and policy management:
![model editor](
![policy editor](
Policy persistence
Role manager
Model Model file Policy file
ACL basic_model.conf basic_policy.csv
ACL with superuser basic_model_with_root.conf basic_policy.csv
ACL without users basic_model_without_users.conf basic_policy_without_users.csv
ACL without resources basic_model_without_resources.conf basic_policy_without_resources.csv
RBAC rbac_model.conf rbac_policy.csv
RBAC with resource roles rbac_model_with_resource_roles.conf rbac_policy_with_resource_roles.csv
RBAC with domains/tenants rbac_model_with_domains.conf rbac_policy_with_domains.csv
ABAC abac_model.conf N/A
RESTful keymatch_model.conf keymatch_policy.csv
Deny-override rbac_model_with_deny.conf rbac_policy_with_deny.csv
Priority priority_model.conf priority_policy.csv
Middlewares Authz middlewares for web frameworks:
Our adopters
Contributors This project exists thanks to all the people who contribute.
License This project is licensed under the [Apache 2.0 license](LICENSE).
Contact If you have any issues or feature requests, please contact us. PR is welcomed. -
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So pretty simple. Blitz would start like normal but once a player got to the ranked rewards grind they would pick one of three tracks to follow;
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Track 2 - Gold
Track 3 - Training mats
Each track would progress independently with only players who picked that track competing for those rewards
Win - win - win; Newer players wouldn't have to compete against veterans for shards of, for example, Spiderman. Veteran players could get more of what they were short of. ScopeBound would get more players blitzing longer even without some kind of event.
Thank you for your time and good luck commander
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View Poll
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